Food restriction and excessive exercise enacted during anorexia leads to the depletion of glycogen (a form of energy storage), resulting in abnormal glucose metabolism and hypoglycemia (very low levels of blood sugar) (Mayo Clinic, 2018).
What happens to potassium in anorexia?
Hypokalemia, low levels of serum potassium, in patients with anorexia nervosa sometimes leads to life-threatening conditions. Thus, it is of great importance to predict the risk of hypokalemia in patients with anorexia nervosa during the refeeding period.
What eating disorder is most associated with electrolyte imbalance?
In anorexia nervosa, under-nutrition and weight regulatory behaviours such as vomiting and laxative abuse can lead to a range of biochemical problems. Hypokalaemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality.
What causes hyponatremia in anorexia?
Hyponatraemia is a common problem in anorexia nervosa but it is relatively under-recognized. The most common cause is excessive water ingestion, leading to dilutional hyponatraemia. In some cases this is deliberate and is done in order to increase weight prior to weighing (‘water loading’).
Can anorexia cause hypocalcemia?
Typical electrolyte abnormalities include hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hypocalcemia, with deficiencies in thiamine and other B complex vitamins, as seen during this patient’s hospital course. Hepatic dysfunction is a common medical complication of anorexia nervosa and its treatment.
Is hyperkalemia associated with anorexia nervosa?
In an adolescent with anorexia nervosa, recurrent hyperkalemia was caused by obsessive eating of up to 20 bananas per day. In another case, a patient with schizophrenia and psychogenic polydipsia was water-restricted but developed hyperkalemia because she replaced water with excessive consumption of orange juice.
Why does anorexia cause dehydration?
Dehydration and Anorexia This is because solid foods also contain water that our bodies can absorb. Therefore, if your child is severely restricting their food intake, they may have a lower fluid intake. This can lead to dehydration.
Does anorexia cause low potassium?
The most frequent electrolyte imbalances seen in anorexia are hyponatremia (a low concentration of sodium ions in the bloodstream) and hypokalemia (a low concentration of potassium ions).
What eating disorders cause low sodium?
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and severe bone loss. Recent data show a deleterious relationship between low circulating sodium levels and bone mass, and relative or absolute hyponatremia is a known complication of AN.
What is electrolyte imbalance symptoms?
- Confusion and irritability.
- Diarrhea or constipation.
- Irregular or fast heart rate (arrhythmia).
- Muscle cramps, muscle spasms or weakness.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Numbness or tingling in limbs, fingers and toes.
Can not eating cause low sodium levels?
A condition called hyponatremia, or low blood sodium levels, may affect certain people like older adults and some athletes. Eating less salt raises the risk of this condition.
What happens when your body is low on electrolytes?
When your body becomes low on electrolytes, it can impair your body’s functions, such as blood clotting, muscle contractions, acid balance, and fluid regulation. Your heart is a muscle, so that means electrolytes help regulate your heartbeat.
Which symptom is a primary characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
Anorexia (an-o-REK-see-uh) nervosa — often simply called anorexia — is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight.
Why does starvation cause hypophosphatemia?
Phosphorus is required for glucose metabolism to produce phosphorylated intermediates of glycolysis such as adenosine triphosphate and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate. The combination of cellular uptake of phosphorus together with depletion of total body stores during starvation causes extracellular hypophosphatemia.
Can anorexia cause hypercalcemia?
Anorexia nervosa can cause significant renal problems, some of which may have contributed to the development of nephrocalcinosis in our patients. Electrolyte disturbances include hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia, hypercalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hypophosphataemia.
Can anorexia cause metabolic acidosis?
The onset of a metabolic acidosis in a patient with anorexia nervosa remains very rare, but also exceptionally severe and unknown to physicians. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of starvation-induced metabolic acidosis in a non-diabetic adolescent with anorexia nervosa.
Why do electrolytes drop in refeeding syndrome?
When you begin refeeding, your cells demand these electrolytes to metabolize the food. This causes a severe shift in your body chemistry. The electrolytes you have move rapidly from your blood into your cells. But because you don’t have enough, this shift leaves low levels of them in your blood.
Do people with eating disorders have low potassium?
Low potassium in the blood is the most common electrolyte problem observed in serious eating disorders, especially among patients who purge and/or abuse laxatives or diuretics as these purging behaviors waste fluid and key electrolytes from the body.
How does anorexia affect the kidneys?
Anorexia nervosa can affect the kidney in numerous ways, including increased rates of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease, electrolyte abnormalities, and nephrolithiasis.
Does anorexia make you thirsty?
However, there are significant changes in kidney function in many people with anorexia, resulting in increased or decreased urination or potentially fatal potassium deficiency. Other long-term effects may include diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by excessive urination and extreme thirst.
Why does anorexia cause low blood pressure?
Failing to consume enough calories can cause the body to break down its tissue for fuel. According to the National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA), the heart can struggle to pump blood when the body doesn’t produce enough fuel. As a result, the heart can become malnourished and hypotension can occur.
What are the symptoms of hypokalemia?
- Heart palpitations.
- Extreme tiredness (fatigue).
- Muscle weakness and spasms.
- Tingling and numbness.
What causes bradycardia In anorexia?
Bradycardia or heart rate less than 60 beats per minute and hypotension or blood pressure less than 90/50 are very common in anorexia nervosa, in patients who are less than 80% of ideal body weight. The bradycardia is due to an overactive parasympathetic nervous system, in the body’s attempt to conserve energy.
Which hormone levels is increased in anorexia nervosa?
Anorexia nervosa in both adolescents and adults is a state of acquired growth hormone (GH) resistance secondary to chronic nutritional deprivation and is characterized by increased GH secretion but decreased systemic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)28,29 (FIG. 1).
What is the most common cause of hyponatremia?
Drinking too much water. Drinking excessive amounts of water can cause low sodium by overwhelming the kidneys’ ability to excrete water. Because you lose sodium through sweat, drinking too much water during endurance activities, such as marathons and triathlons, can also dilute the sodium content of your blood.