Hormonal changes. Adrenal gland insufficiency (Addison’s disease) affects your adrenal glands’ ability to produce hormones that help maintain your body’s balance of sodium, potassium and water. Low levels of thyroid hormone also can cause a low blood-sodium level. The recreational drug Ecstasy.
How does anorexia affect electrolytes?
The most frequent electrolyte imbalances seen in anorexia are hyponatremia (a low concentration of sodium ions in the bloodstream) and hypokalemia (a low concentration of potassium ions).
What happens to potassium in anorexia?
Hypokalemia, low levels of serum potassium, in patients with anorexia nervosa sometimes leads to life-threatening conditions. Thus, it is of great importance to predict the risk of hypokalemia in patients with anorexia nervosa during the refeeding period.
Is hyperkalemia associated with anorexia nervosa?
In an adolescent with anorexia nervosa, recurrent hyperkalemia was caused by obsessive eating of up to 20 bananas per day. In another case, a patient with schizophrenia and psychogenic polydipsia was water-restricted but developed hyperkalemia because she replaced water with excessive consumption of orange juice.
How does anorexia cause hyponatremia?
Hyponatremia can also be seen in severe restrictive eating disorders due to decreased ability of the kidney to excrete free water as a result of low nutritional intake. Without enough food or solutes, even a fairly normal amount of water intake can lead to hyponatremia if the body retains too much of it.
Can not eating cause electrolyte imbalance?
An electrolyte imbalance can be caused by: Losing fluids as a result of persistent vomiting or diarrhea, sweating or fever. Not drinking or eating enough.
Which eating disorder is most associated with electrolyte imbalance?
In anorexia nervosa, under-nutrition and weight regulatory behaviours such as vomiting and laxative abuse can lead to a range of biochemical problems. Hypokalaemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality.
Can malnutrition cause low potassium?
Mortality rates increase if potassium levels are below 2.5 mEq/l (severe hypokalaemia) . Poor intake and poor muscle bulk in malnourished children results in the fall of total serum potassium levels (by as much as 25%).
What eating disorders cause low sodium?
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and severe bone loss. Recent data show a deleterious relationship between low circulating sodium levels and bone mass, and relative or absolute hyponatremia is a known complication of AN.
Which symptom is a primary characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
Anorexia (an-o-REK-see-uh) nervosa — often simply called anorexia — is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight.
Do people with eating disorders have low potassium?
Low potassium in the blood is the most common electrolyte problem observed in serious eating disorders, especially among patients who purge and/or abuse laxatives or diuretics as these purging behaviors waste fluid and key electrolytes from the body.
What is electrolyte imbalance symptoms?
- Confusion and irritability.
- Diarrhea or constipation.
- Irregular or fast heart rate (arrhythmia).
- Muscle cramps, muscle spasms or weakness.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Numbness or tingling in limbs, fingers and toes.
What is refeeding syndrome in anorexia?
Refeeding syndrome (RS) is one of the serious complications during treatment of anorexia nervosa. It includes hormonal and metabolic changes that occur during the process of refeeding in chronically malnourished patient when nutrition is introduced in an excessive and improper amount.
Can starvation cause hyponatremia?
Malnutrition can lead to hyponatremia and prerenal AKI. However, long-term malnutrition may also affect the tubular function of the kidney. Severe hyponatremia, other electrolyte disturbances, and protein and vitamin deficiency can be factors that interact in this pathogenesis.
Why does anorexia cause low blood pressure?
Failing to consume enough calories can cause the body to break down its tissue for fuel. According to the National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA), the heart can struggle to pump blood when the body doesn’t produce enough fuel. As a result, the heart can become malnourished and hypotension can occur.
Does anorexia cause low blood sugar?
Food restriction and excessive exercise enacted during anorexia leads to the depletion of glycogen (a form of energy storage), resulting in abnormal glucose metabolism and hypoglycemia (very low levels of blood sugar) (Mayo Clinic, 2018).
What causes imbalanced electrolytes?
Electrolyte disorders are most often caused by a loss of bodily fluids through prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating. They may also develop due to fluid loss related to burns. Certain medications can cause electrolyte disorders as well.
What other disorders might occur with anorexia nervosa?
- Substance abuse/alcohol.
- Borderline personality disorder (BPD)
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Can anorexia cause metabolic acidosis?
The onset of a metabolic acidosis in a patient with anorexia nervosa remains very rare, but also exceptionally severe and unknown to physicians. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of starvation-induced metabolic acidosis in a non-diabetic adolescent with anorexia nervosa.
How does purging affect electrolytes?
Purging behaviors like vomiting and abusing laxatives reduce electrolytes and fluids in your body. Your tissues respond by holding onto every drop of liquid they can access, which can look like swelling to you.  This is a known and severe complication of bulimia.
What causes refeeding syndrome?
Refeeding syndrome is caused by rapid refeeding after a period of under-nutrition, characterised by hypophosphataemia, electrolyte shifts and has metabolic and clinical complications. High risk patients include the chronically under-nourished and those with little intake for greater than 10 days.
What are the 10 signs of low potassium?
- feeling tired.
- muscle cramps.
- an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) – skipped heartbeats or an irregular heartbeat.
- tingling or numbness.
- increased urination.
What is the most common cause of low potassium?
Low potassium (hypokalemia) has many causes. The most common cause is excessive potassium loss in urine due to prescription medications that increase urination. Also known as water pills or diuretics, these types of medications are often prescribed for people who have high blood pressure or heart disease.
What causes potassium levels to drop?
Low blood potassium typically occurs because of an excessive loss of potassium in your digestive tract. This may be due to frequent vomiting, diarrhea or laxative use. Other causes of hypokalemia include: Eating disorders, such as bulimia nervosa.
What causes bradycardia In anorexia?
Bradycardia or heart rate less than 60 beats per minute and hypotension or blood pressure less than 90/50 are very common in anorexia nervosa, in patients who are less than 80% of ideal body weight. The bradycardia is due to an overactive parasympathetic nervous system, in the body’s attempt to conserve energy.