Low Blood Sodium Levels (Hyponatremia) There are two types of hyponatremia: acute and chronic: Acute hyponatremia is severe. It can cause a person to feel confusion, have seizures, fall into a coma, and go into respiratory failure. Hyponatremia can also lead to brain swelling and herniation, which is fatal.
Does anorexia nervosa lead to electrolyte imbalance?
In anorexia nervosa, under-nutrition and weight regulatory behaviours such as vomiting and laxative abuse can lead to a range of biochemical problems. Hypokalaemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Metabolic alkalosis occurs in patients who vomit or abuse diuretics and acidosis in those misusing laxatives.
Is hypokalemia associated with anorexia nervosa?
Hypokalemia is frequently found in patients with anorexia nervosa and sometimes leads to life-threatening conditions.
Is hyperkalemia associated with anorexia nervosa?
In an adolescent with anorexia nervosa, recurrent hyperkalemia was caused by obsessive eating of up to 20 bananas per day. In another case, a patient with schizophrenia and psychogenic polydipsia was water-restricted but developed hyperkalemia because she replaced water with excessive consumption of orange juice.
Can anorexia cause hypocalcemia?
Typical electrolyte abnormalities include hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hypocalcemia, with deficiencies in thiamine and other B complex vitamins, as seen during this patient’s hospital course. Hepatic dysfunction is a common medical complication of anorexia nervosa and its treatment.
How does anorexia cause hyponatremia?
Hyponatremia can also be seen in severe restrictive eating disorders due to decreased ability of the kidney to excrete free water as a result of low nutritional intake. Without enough food or solutes, even a fairly normal amount of water intake can lead to hyponatremia if the body retains too much of it.
What is electrolyte imbalance symptoms?
- Confusion and irritability.
- Diarrhea or constipation.
- Irregular or fast heart rate (arrhythmia).
- Muscle cramps, muscle spasms or weakness.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Numbness or tingling in limbs, fingers and toes.
Can anorexia cause metabolic acidosis?
The onset of a metabolic acidosis in a patient with anorexia nervosa remains very rare, but also exceptionally severe and unknown to physicians. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of starvation-induced metabolic acidosis in a non-diabetic adolescent with anorexia nervosa.
What electrolytes are affected in refeeding syndrome?
Refeeding syndrome involves metabolic abnormalities when a malnourished person begins feeding, after a period of starvation or limited intake. In a starved body, there is a breakdown of fat and muscle, which leads to losses in some electrolytes like potassium, magnesium, and phosphate.
What eating disorders cause low sodium?
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and severe bone loss. Recent data show a deleterious relationship between low circulating sodium levels and bone mass, and relative or absolute hyponatremia is a known complication of AN.
Can malnutrition cause low potassium?
Mortality rates increase if potassium levels are below 2.5 mEq/l (severe hypokalaemia) . Poor intake and poor muscle bulk in malnourished children results in the fall of total serum potassium levels (by as much as 25%).
Why do electrolytes drop in refeeding syndrome?
When you begin refeeding, your cells demand these electrolytes to metabolize the food. This causes a severe shift in your body chemistry. The electrolytes you have move rapidly from your blood into your cells. But because you don’t have enough, this shift leaves low levels of them in your blood.
Do people with eating disorders have low potassium?
Low potassium in the blood is the most common electrolyte problem observed in serious eating disorders, especially among patients who purge and/or abuse laxatives or diuretics as these purging behaviors waste fluid and key electrolytes from the body.
Why does starvation cause hypophosphatemia?
Phosphorus is required for glucose metabolism to produce phosphorylated intermediates of glycolysis such as adenosine triphosphate and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate. The combination of cellular uptake of phosphorus together with depletion of total body stores during starvation causes extracellular hypophosphatemia.
Can anorexia cause hypercalcemia?
Anorexia nervosa can cause significant renal problems, some of which may have contributed to the development of nephrocalcinosis in our patients. Electrolyte disturbances include hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia, hypercalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hypophosphataemia.
Can starvation cause hyponatremia?
Malnutrition can lead to hyponatremia and prerenal AKI. However, long-term malnutrition may also affect the tubular function of the kidney. Severe hyponatremia, other electrolyte disturbances, and protein and vitamin deficiency can be factors that interact in this pathogenesis.
Does anorexia cause low blood sugar?
Food restriction and excessive exercise enacted during anorexia leads to the depletion of glycogen (a form of energy storage), resulting in abnormal glucose metabolism and hypoglycemia (very low levels of blood sugar) (Mayo Clinic, 2018).
Which symptom is a primary characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
Anorexia (an-o-REK-see-uh) nervosa — often simply called anorexia — is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight.
What is the most common electrolyte imbalance?
Hyponatremia is the most common form of electrolyte disorder in the emergency room. The symptoms are unspecific and include nausea, dizziness and often falls. Typical symptoms of severe hypernatremia are vomiting, cerebral seizures, somnolence and even coma.
Is Dehydration an electrolyte imbalance?
An electrolyte imbalance can happen if a person becomes dehydrated or if they have too much water in their body. Electrolyte imbalances are most often due to: vomiting. diarrhea.
What happens when electrolytes are low?
When your body becomes low on electrolytes, it can impair your body’s functions, such as blood clotting, muscle contractions, acid balance, and fluid regulation. Your heart is a muscle, so that means electrolytes help regulate your heartbeat.
Can anorexia cause lactic acidosis?
The etiology of lactic acidosis in the reported case is probably multifactorial including hypotension, volume depletion, hypothermia, (all due to anorexia nervosa with the subsequent impairment in renal and hepatic function) and probably metformin overdose. The mortality inreported cases is about 50 percent.
What other disorders might occur with anorexia nervosa?
- Substance abuse/alcohol.
- Borderline personality disorder (BPD)
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
What is refeeding syndrome in anorexia?
Refeeding syndrome (RS) is one of the serious complications during treatment of anorexia nervosa. It includes hormonal and metabolic changes that occur during the process of refeeding in chronically malnourished patient when nutrition is introduced in an excessive and improper amount.
Does refeeding syndrome cause hypoglycemia?
Hypoglycemia can be one of the manifestations in severely malnourished infants with refeeding syndrome. Extra caution is required when patients initiate enteral refeeding and increase the feed volume.