The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a data-driven, hierarchically based alternative to traditional classifications that conceptualizes psychopathology as a set of dimensions organized into increasingly broad, transdiagnostic spectra.
Social Learning Theory attributes the etiology of eating disorders to the emphasis placed on thinness in Western society. Women often receive positive attention for being thin, or even for attempting weight loss. This attention then serves as reinforcement of the thin-ideal (Levine & Smolak, 2001).
What is Transdiagnostic theory?
The transdiagnostic model of FBT posits that while the etiology of an eating disorder is unknown, the pathology affects the family and home environment in ways that inadvertently allow for symptom maintenance and progression.
What psychological perspectives is anorexia?
From a CBT perspective, anorexia nervosa results from rigid or extreme schemas, or cognitive patterns, which lead to dysfunctional behavior, misinterpretation of experiences, and extreme and/or negative thinking. “The eating-disordered belief system is based on lies that keep an individual stuck in the illness cycle.
What personality trait is associated with anorexia nervosa?
People who suffer from anorexia nervosa tend to have high levels of harm avoidance, a personality trait characterized by worrying, pessimism, and shyness, and low levels of novelty seeking, which includes impulsivity and preferring new or novel things (Fassino et al., 2002).
How does the behaviourist approach explain anorexia?
A cognitive behavioural theory of the maintenance of anorexia nervosa is proposed. It is argued that an extreme need to control eating is the central feature of the disorder, and that in Western societies a tendency to judge self-worth in terms of shape and weight is superimposed on this need for self-control.
How does operant conditioning explain anorexia?
Anorexia could be explained by Operant Conditioning. When people lose weight, they are complimented (positive reinforcement) and this conditions them into losing more and more weight.
What is a transdiagnostic model in CBT?
Abstract. Background: Transdiagnostic Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) seeks to identify core cognitive-behavioural processes hypothesized to be important across a range of disorders and to develop a treatment that targets these. This contrasts with standard CBT approaches that are disorder-specific.
What is the transdiagnostic model of anxiety?
Transdiagnostic models of anxiety (e.g., Norton, 2006) view variations between diagnoses as existing primarily in differences across the eliciting stimuli (e.g., public speaking, contaminants), and in some cases the coping responses serving to control the threat from those stimuli (e.g., avoidance, overt or covert …
What is transdiagnostic therapy?
While there is no uniform definition of transdiagnostic treatments, they have been defined as treatments that “apply the same underlying treatment principles across mental disorders, without tailoring the protocol to specific diagnoses” (McEvoy et al.
What are the cognitive theories?
Cognitive theories are characterized by their focus on the idea that how and what people think leads to the arousal of emotions and that certain thoughts and beliefs lead to disturbed emotions and behaviors and others lead to healthy emotions and adaptive behavior.
What are the different psychology perspectives?
- The Psychodynamic Perspective.
- The Behavioral Perspective.
- The Cognitive Perspective.
- The Biological Perspective.
- The Cross-Cultural Perspective.
- The Evolutionary Perspective.
- The Humanistic Perspective.
What part of the brain is affected by anorexia nervosa?
Most fMRI studies performed in patients with anorexia nervosa focused on food, taste, physical appearance and social cognition. Although very different in terms of the study protocol, the most common findings are increased activation of the amygdala and altered activation of the cingulate cortex.
What personality traits do people with eating disorders tend to possess?
Personality traits commonly associated with eating disorder (ED) are high perfectionism, impulsivity, harm avoidance, reward dependence, sensation seeking, neuroticism, and obsessive-compulsiveness in combination with low self-directedness, assertiveness, and cooperativeness [8-11].
What are 4 characteristics of anorexia nervosa?
Frequently skipping meals or refusing to eat. Denial of hunger or making excuses for not eating. Eating only a few certain “safe” foods, usually those low in fat and calories. Adopting rigid meal or eating rituals, such as spitting food out after chewing.
What type of person is most likely to be affected by anorexia nervosa?
Anorexia is more common among girls and women than boys and men. Anorexia is also more common among girls and younger women than older women. On average, girls develop anorexia at 16 or 17. Teen girls between 13 and 19 and young women in their early 20s are most at risk.
Which neurotransmitter known for being involved in depression has an inhibitory effect on eating behavior?
Serotonin: a neurotransmitter involved in depression also has an inhibitory effect on eating behavior. Norepinephrine is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone; abnormalities in either capacity may affect eating behavior.
Do role models influence anorexia?
In relation to anorexia nervosa, important role models might be mothers, peers or celebrities in the media. Research has shown that mothers who complain about their weight are more likely to have children who have their own weight concerns.
How does classical conditioning affect our eating habits?
How does classical conditioning affect our eating habits? You eat when you’re conditioned to eat, not when you are hungry. The smell and taste of food triggers the digestive system.
What is meant by the notion that eating behaviors are conditioned?
What is meant by the notion that eating behaviors are conditioned? Previous experiences, such as those that occur during childhood, affect our current response to food and eating behaviors.
What is transdiagnostic factor?
Transdiagnostic means a factor that may account for the comorbidity of symptoms between certain psychopathologies. Recently, researchers have posited that rumination, the tendency to dwell on thoughts and feelings, may be a transdiagnostic factor in several psychological disorders.
What is transdiagnostic risk?
Transdiagnostic factors are factors that not only occur across multiple disorders, but also contribute to the etiology and/or maintenance of a range of disorders (Egan, Wade, & Shafran, 2011).
What is CBT used for primarily?
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of psychological treatment that has been demonstrated to be effective for a range of problems including depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug use problems, marital problems, eating disorders, and severe mental illness.
What are examples of rumination?
Examples of temporary rumination can be: Continually worrying about an upcoming test. Reliving an important conversation. Thinking about a meaningful event that happened in the past.
What is enhanced CBT?
Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) is a type of talk therapy that helps with a variety of mental health conditions. It is an individualized treatment based on your personal situation and preferences. CBT addresses how the combination of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors contribute to your eating disorders.